Selenium is the most popular and widely-used open source collection of automation tools and libraries which enables and supports automation of web browsers. Selenium is primarily used for testing Web User Interfaces but it is not limited to just that. A wide range of activities related to browsers can also be done with the help of Selenium.

Selenium supports automation across different browsers, platforms and programming languages, making it the most preferred automation tool in the testing community. It provides extensions to emulate user interaction with browsers, a distribution proxy server for scaling browser allocation and the infrastructure to implement the W3C WebDriver specification ( that lets us write interchangeable code for all the major web browsers like Chrome, Firefox, Internet Explorer, MS Edge, Safari, Opera and HTMLUnit.

It works on multiple Operating Systems like Windows, macOS and Linux as well as with multiple Programming Languages like Java, Python, C#, Ruby, JavaScript, Perl and PHP.

As told earlier, Selenium is not just a single tool but it comprises of many tools/ APIs namely:
– Selenium WebDriver
– Selenium Remote Control
– Selenium IDE
– Selenium Grid
– Selenium HTML Runner

At the core of Selenium is the “WebDriver” (Selenium2, Selenium3) which is an interface that uses browser automation APIs provided by the browser vendors to control the browsers and to write instruction code that can be run interchangeably in all the browsers mentioned above.

Selenium Remote Control (RC)” (Selenium1) is basically a HTTP Proxy Server which injects JavaScript into a browser to automate the actions. Selenium2 APIs still contain the Selenium RC APIs but Selenium3 and the subsequent versions of Selenium would not have Selenium RC APIs at all. So preferably you should not use it.

Selenium IDE” is essentially a Mozilla Firefox browser plugin which can be used to record the automation steps in the Firefox browser and generate codes in C#, Java, Python and Ruby. Preferably you should use Selenium WebDriver to automate your tests with the help of writing good locator and action codes which we will be discussing later in this tutorial. For quick prototyping of your Selenium tests you can use Selenium IDE.

Selenium Grid” is a Selenium API which can be used to run automation tests on multiple browsers and operating systems. It is technically a proxy server that allows Selenium tests to route commands to remote web browser instances to provide an easy way to run tests in parallel on multiple machines. We will discuss Selenium Grid in detail at a later point in this tutorial.

Selenium HTML Runner” allows us to run an automation Test Suite (not Test Case) from a command line. The automation tests are HTML exports from Selenium IDE or other compatible tools.